Experimental Nuclear Physics

The study of Nuclear Physics aims at understanding Nuclear Structure and the forces holding the nucleus together. To achieve this understanding it studies Nuclear Reactions and the Radioactivity they produce. In addition, since the produced radiation is characteristic of the emitting nuclei, it serves as a diagnostic tool for almost all sciences.

We mention here:
The use of Radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and therapy.
The use of radiations for the Microanalysis of Trace elements with sensitivities of the order of one in a million (i.e. one gram in a ton of material) and applications in Environmental Biology , the Characterization of New Materialsand Archeometry

The study of reactions contributing to the Production of Energy and the Evolution of Stars

Nuclear Structure


In nature there are 92 Elements. They are distinguished by the number of their electrons (Atomic Number, Z) which determines their chemical properties. Every element (Atom) has a nucleus which contains as many protons as the atomic electrons. It also contains neutrons. The sum of protons and neutrons (the nucleons) is the Mass Number (A) of the element. With these numbers every nucleus is fully specified.

Nucleons are confined in very small space where the laws of Quantum Mechanics are valid. The only information we can obtain is about the Energy States of the nucleus, the Probability to find it in one of these, as well as, its decay to other states of lower energy which we present in an Energy Diagram.
Nuclear Astrophysics for more info click here

The Institute of Nuclear Physics is active in Theoretical and Experimental Astrophysics and Cosmology research. This research activity includes:

Studies of topological formations in field theory and Cosmology of the Primordial Universe as well as studies on subjects in Particle Cosmology (such as Cosmological Phase Transitions, Inflationary and Accelerating Universe etc)

Measurements of cross sections (i.e. probabilities) of nuclear reactions which influence the nucleosynthesis process at various stages of star formation.
Nuclear Reactions  

For the study of the structure and the properties of the nucleus we provoke Nuclear Reactions. We use Ions which have been accelerated, i.e. they have obtained kinetic energy by an Accelerator . With these we “bombard” the “target” nuclei. The nuclei absorb the energy of the “projectile” or they are transformed, absorbing all or part of the projectile. We end up with nuclei, which have excess energy and will decay to states of lower energy, emitting photons or particles, they become Radioactive .

This radioactivity is captured by specialized detectors, and after proper theoretical processing yields information on the structure of the nucleus.
X-ray Spectrometry for more info click here

The X-ray fluorescence technique is an important analytical tool for the non-destructive, simultaneous and multielemental analysis of samples with interest in various disciplines, from advanced materials, biomedicine, geology, to the environmental science and archaeometrical research. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of NCSR ‘Demokritos’ is equipped to produce X-rays from ions (using the TANDEM accelerator) or from electrons (using a variety of X-ray tubes of different power). The research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy includes studies in basic research as well as studies of multidisciplinary nature.
Ion -Beam Analysis  
Nanostructured Materials  
Interdisciplinary Applications  
 Experimental Nuclear Physics
 Experimental High Energy Physics
 Theoretical Physics
 Computing and Networks
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Additional Information

For more information contact:

Institute of Nuclear Physics
Gr-15310 Aghia Paraskevi
tel: +30 2106503512
fax: +30 2106511215